appliance repair, appliances

Product Reviews :: Whirlpool Microwave Ovens

Whirlpool Appliances, which was initially known for its state of the art washing machines has forayed big time into the Indian consumer appliances market. The company took our kitchens by storm when it introduced its Mastermind series of intelligent refrigerators and won many awards along with many hearts. Now they are vying for attention with their competitive range of microwaves that are not only at par in technology with their competitors but also give stiff competition with design and features too.

The third category is that of the convection range that is ideal for making all your cookies and cakes and is for you if you are a desert fanatic. This is a range of larger Microwave Ovens that has interesting features that can help you with any kind of cooking in your kitchen. It has functions and utilities like Auto Cook, Combi Cook, Micro Tawa, Baking Tray apart from the others provided in the Grill range and can help you in dishing out almost any kind of food in minutes with great ease. This range is also priced on the higher side as it is the one giving you the maximum of everything.

All in all, the microwaves from Whirlpool not only have excellent technology and off beat features that cannot be found in other ovens, they also have such a diversified range that there is one microwave for everybody in the house of Whirlpool!

appliance repair, appliances

Market size of refrigerators increases fast amid tight competition. (Industry Profile).

The country’s household electric equipment industry including

refrigerator industry has been categorized as sunset industry or

footloose industry because of the steady development of its technology.

If there is any change it is only in features. The technology used in

refrigerator industry is easily available as generally the industry uses

sets of equipment that are generally used in the manufacturing

industries such as plastic injection molding machine, vacuum forming,

steel rail forming, various machine tools and handling equipment.

With those characteristics, electric equipment industry is easily

relocated to any place where production cost is lower or where operation

is more efficient such as in place where labor cost is cheaper, or

electric tariff and tax facility are more attractive. This industry is

expected to continue to survive as its product is needed by the people

especially people of middle to high class. Especially in Indonesia with

its tropical climate, refrigerators will be more necessary to preserve


The decline in the purchasing power of the people as a result of

the financial crisis in 1998 caused a sharp fall in the market size of

refrigerators to only 399,203 units, but in 1999, the market recovered

immediately with sales rising to 582,835 units in 1999. Sales even

surged to an estimated 973,775 units in 2001.

Sharp, National and Sanyo, all Japanese brands–maintained the

position as the market leaders after the crisis, but there were also

factories that had to be closed such as that of PT Lippo Nelco, which

produced Mitsubishi refrigerator. There were quite many local brands of

refrigerators before the crisis hit the country, but only Maspion,

Cosmos, Daichi and Polytron managed to weather the difficult period.

Other brands like Sapporo have been defunct. However, there were also

new brand appearing during the crisis such as Sanken. Sanken uses two

local brands but its components are imported from China and Japan.

Meanwhile Samsung, which is still imported in built-up form from South

Korea will be assembled in the country. An assembling plant for Samsung

is expected to be operational in 2004.

Process of producing refrigerators

There are 14 phases to go in the process of producing refrigerators

namely fabrication, spot welding, painting, vacuum forming, sealing

assembly, evaporator assembly, condenser assembly (suction line),

cooling unit, sub assembly and packing.

Fabrication is a process of producing parts and components using

steel sheets as basic material. Parts produced in this stage are

cabinets, doors, lower cover and hinges. The process of manufacturing

begins by putting steel sheets in roll to cutting machine, followed with

the production of cabinet and other parts with bending machine.

Spot welding is the next process after fabrication namely

assembling parts through welding on the tips of the components. Welding

is made with special electric welding machine. The next process is

painting. After being assembled into one unit, the cabinet of

refrigerator is sent to the painting shops to be painted. The parts to

be painted are the cabinet, doors, legs and the evaporator. Before being

painted, the parts are first washed with water and chemical mixture.

The painting process is both with automatic and manual systems.

Automatic painting is made in a closed room where fast rolling disk is

used to spray the paint on the components. Before and after the process

of automatic painting, manual spraying is necessary to paint parts that

could not be painted well in automatic process. After that is drying in


In the process of vacuum forming, with the help of heating and

molding machine, the interior components of refrigerator are produced

from ABS plastic material. In this process the basic material is cut and

molded to have the desired form. The doors and the cabinet are fixed, to

be followed with the process of sealing and door assembly that is part

of painting shop which is fixed with condenser pipe and then insulated.

Inner liner and inner door are then fixed before being ready to be

filled with urethane.

Urethane is filled into insulator through injection. Insulator is

necessary to maintain the temperature in the refrigerator. The process

is by fixing mold in the cabinet and then put into machine to be

injected with a mixture of premix, cyclopentane isocyanate. The process

will take one hour.

TIG or aluminum welding material in the production of evaporator is

welded first before being sent to the assembling unit. Evaporator is a

place for freezing to produce ice. The material for evaporator is

produced not in the factory. Suction is fixed in this section and is

welded with copper. Plastic cover is then provided and molded with

bending machine. Copper pipes are cut with automatic machine for

condenser assembly (suction line) and then plastic cover is provided.

In the cooling unit, there are four types of activities namely

fixing of compressor, vacuuming, gas filling and wiring or cable

connection. After the compressor has been fixed, the connecting pipe is

covered with vaseline. After the pipe has been welded there is the

process of vacuuming using special equipment. After that it is filled

with cooling gas, to be followed with the process of connecting with

cable and tying the cables with plastic.

In the sub assembly or cabinet assembly the process of assembling

refrigerator from half finished components will take place. After being

filled with urethane, the cabinet is put over a falet and then the legs

which are already painted, hinges, control box and the evaporator are

fixed. For a two door refrigerator, coil and fan are used. The last is

the fixing of doors.

Final assembly–This process includes cleaning, fixing of

accessories, final check and packaging or cleaning with cloth and air.

Accessories fixed inside include racks for egg, ice cubes and vegetable,

freezing section and meat cover and drinking water section. Fixing

outside include sticker and directory book. The last process sis packing

with carton box and small plate and Styrofoam to function as cushion.

Machine, equipment and basic materials

The main machines to produce refrigerator are press and bending

machines to produce the doors and walls from steel plates, vacuum

forming machine to produce inner parts from ABS plastic material,

urethane injection machine to produce insulator between the walls and

machine producing evaporator.

PT Sanyo has a complete facility to produce refrigerators. The

factory which was built in 1995 has a production capacity of 320,000

units in two shifts. Almost all main components are produced by the

company excepting compressor that has be produced by other company

namely PT Sanyo Compressor Indonesia.

Maspion factory has been integrated with component industry but

part of its small components especially main components are still

imported such as thermostat and compressors for refrigerators and

washing machines. Sanyo has already produced compressors but the price

is not competitive against imported products. Maspion also uses several

components from China. Components such as compressors produced by LG and

Samsung are imported from distributors in Singapore.

The main basic materials for refrigerator could be categorized into

steel plate, ABS plastic and urethane. See the following table.

Most electric industries including refrigerator industry began as

assembling industry before being developed into full manufacturing

industry, but no factory is able to produce all components as it would

not be efficient. The manufacturing levels of factories are not the


Multinational companies from Japan and South Korea generally have

production facilities in various countries that it is not necessary to

produce all components in a country. Sanyo has compressor factory in

Indonesia to supply its refrigerator factory in the country. National

has a compressor factory in Singapore, therefore the Indonesian branch

has to import the component from Singapore.

It is not also necessary for a company group to produce all

components. Some of the components could be bought from other companies.

Sharp, for example, uses compressors produced by Sanyo or LG. Similarly

with the case of injection moulding.

Capacity 1.88 million units

Based on data at the industry and trade ministry, the country has

12 companies actively producing refrigerators with a total capacity of

1,884,000 units per year. Six of the companies are PT Sharp Yasonta

Indonesia, PT national Gobel, PT Sanyo Industries Indonesia, PT Harapan

Daya Utama, PT Sumber Berkah Sakti, PT Top Jaya Antariksa and PT Astra

Summit Electric.

They assemble components from various suppliers or components

imported in a complete set. Those assembling component s imported in

complete set are PT Harapan Daya Utama with the brand of Daichi and PT

Sumber Berkah Sakti using the brand of Sapporo & Ariston. The two

brands are South Korean brands.

Those assembling refrigerators with components from different

producers such as those produced themselves as in house products and

components produced under subcontract (out house), and imported

components are mainly large companies including foreign (PMA) and

domestic (PMDN) companies. The main components used by PMA companies are

imported such as from Japan and South Korea. PLDN use both local and

imported components.

PT Sharp Yasonta Indonesia is a PMA with an annual capacity of

480,000 units. The majority shareholder of Yasonta was Firma Teladan,

before Sharp Corp. decided to acquire 90% of the Yasonta Group in 1994.

Firma Teladan was closed in 1995. The shareholders now are Sharp Corp.

holding 90% and Yasonta holding 10%. The company still concentrates on

producing refrigerators, television sets, washing machines and air

conditioner. Lately it started producing Simba audio.

PT National Gobel in Jakarta produces refrigerators with the brand

name of National since 1971. It is the fourth largest producer with an

annual capacity of 272,000 tons. It is 60% owned by Matsushita Electric

Industrial Co. and 40% by Gobel Internasional. The company also produces

electronic goods and other electronic products such as AC, electric

fans, TV set, radio receivers, tape recorders, washing machines,

electric water pumps, etc.

National Gobel has succeeded in weathering the crisis and has

continued to expand. It is oriented more to domestic market and it has

developed marketing networks in the country. PT sanyo Industries

Indoensia has an annual capacity of 320,000 units per year. It is 45%

owned by Sanyo Electric Co. Ltd, 20% by Sanyo Electric Trading Co. Ltd

and 35% by the family of Setiawan Wongsodjojo. The company also produces

AC, TV sets, washing machines, radio receivers and tape recorders.

Lately it produced a new brand of refrigerator Emerald using the latest

technology with anti rust PCM body and CQ compressor.

PT LG Electronic Indonesia is and Indonesia-South Korea joint

venture producing refrigerator with the brand name of LG with an annual

capacity of 300,000 units. The company was first known in the country

with the name of PT Godstar Astra as a joint venture in 1990. In 1999,

LG sold 51% of its share ot Astra, but later LG took over the company

again and made Indonesia as its main market target in Asean. In 2001, TV

sets and refrigerators accounted for 70% of its sales with washing

machines, AC and other products making up the rest. See the following


Interest in investment low

BKPM issued very few license in refrigerator industry. The agency

issued no license in the last two years. Tight competition in the market

was probably one of the factors discouraging investment in this


The government has issued a series of regulations to encourage

investment in the electric sector such as a regulation allowing foreign

investors to operate without partnership with local investors. The

government has also provided tax facility such as reduction of corporate

tax from 35% to 30% and exemption of import duty, surcharge, value added

tax (VAT), luxury sales tax on basic material, components and capital

goods for export oriented companies operating in bonded zone/EPTE.

Facilities provided for PMA/PMDN include reduction of import duty on

capital goods, basic/auxiliary materials for two year requirement from

5% to 0% and from >50% to 50%.

The facilities are also offered for companies undergoing

restructuring such as expansion, diversification, and quality

improvement and modernization of equipment. Import duty and surcharge

will be exempted for one undergoing restructuring more than 30% or more

of the investment already made. Import duty exemption on machines and

equipment is offered for one undergoing restructuring less than 30%. Tax

holiday is provided for pioneer industries.

Production rising to normal level

In the 1995-2001 period, the country’s production of

refrigerators grew fast–from 598,000 units in 1997 to 953,270 units in

2001 or an annual growth of 16.5%.

The production plunged in 1998 when the crisis was at its worst,

but in 1999, production rose to a normal level. The production rose

following the improvement in the buying power of the people especially

those of the middle class. The buying power of the consumers grew with

the rupiah strengthening against the U.S. dollar However, despite the

strong growth the capacity utilization is still low. In 2001, the

industry operated at 50.6% of its installed capacity. See the following


According to data at the Indonesia electronic association, sales of

refrigerators in the first half of this year in the country was 481,500

units. Chinese products including non branded products, which have begun

to pose a threat to other electronic products in the country, have not

gained significant share of the market of refrigerators in the country.

Imports surging

Indonesia imports refrigerators in CBU (completely built-up) and

CKD (completely knocked down) forms. Refrigerators imported in CKD form

are assembled with additional components from local suppliers. Those in

CBU form are imported by sole distributors like Cosmos from South Korea.

National Gobel, Yasonta and Samsung imports large refrigerators for

middle to high class consumers.

Imports dropped by 20.4% to 22,482 units in 1998, but in 1999,

import rose again and in 2000, imports totaled 98,804 units valued at

US$ 15.15 million and it rose the figure rose further to 114,216 units

valued at US$ 17.11 million.

Imported ice boxes include refrigerator-freezer combination,

household refrigerator of compression types, household refrigerators of

absorption type and other types. The type import most in volume are

combination of refrigerator-freezer combination as shown in the

following table.

Singapore the largest suppliers

The largest supplier of refrigerators to Indonesia in 1998 was the

United States, followed by South Korea and Japan. Japan, which had long

been the main supplier, exported only 341 units to Indonesia in 1998.

Singapore took the lead in 1999. Imports from that country totaled

30,309 units that year or 49.7% Of the country’s total imports. Now

Thailand has become a major supplier accounting for 74.6% or 62,180

units of the compressor types

Import duty 15% and Luxury sales tax 10-20%

Under a deregulation measure in June 1996, the import duties and

surcharge on several types of household refrigerator were reduced.

Import duty were slashed from 50% to 15%. The policy was made ahead of

the AFTA scheme to be effective in 2002. The luxury sales tax, however,

was maintained from 10% to 20%. The luxury sales tax prompted illegal

imports, but smuggled products did significantly affect the market as

consumers would risk buying smuggled products without brand as the

quality is not guaranteed,

The government is expected to reduce the luxury sales tax on

electric products including refrigerators next year. Earlier the luxury

sales tax on components for broadcasting companies including radio and

TV stations were reduced from 20% to 0%. The tariff cut is expected to

regain the confidence of the international community in Indonesia and

reduce smuggling.

The government has also issued regulation aimed at stamping out

smuggling. Under a new regulation, the special importer identity number

(NPIK) was issued as a special license to import household electric

equipment. The holders of the license are required to regularly report

their import activities. Another regulation required the issuance manual

directory book in Indonesian language with guarantee card also in

Indonesian language. However, so far only 70 of those registered NPIK

holders have made registration for manual and guarantee car in

Indonesian language.

Exports surging again

Exports were not the goal of household electric equipment industry

when it was first developed. Exports began only in 1994 when many

factories were built with export orientation especially those relocated

from abroad to the country from abroad. Later exports increased as shown

in the following table. There is no regulation restricting trading of

electric equipment including refrigerators. The government even

encourages exports with drawback facility.

Japan the main market

The largest buyer of refrigerators from Indonesia is Japan to which

exports totaled 32,092 units of the compressor type or 38.6% of the

total exports of 83,071 of the same type in 2001. Exports to Japan are

made mainly by Japanese companies operating in the country such as Sharp

and Sanyo.

Other major buyers include Singapore to which exports totaled

10,335 units of the compressor type, followed by the Philippines to

which exports totaling 9,307 units, Malaysia 8,732 units and Sri Lanka 5,688 units. Non Japanese companies exporting refrigerators from

Indonesia include LG Electronic Indonesia. That company exported around

2,500 units per month. See the following table.

Phase out

In 1997, Sharp, Sanyo and Matsushita made modification of their

production line to use non-HFC-134a as refrigerant. It is estimated that

the refrigerant has been used for 30% of the refrigerators produced in

the country. A presidential decree in 1992 required the phasing out of

refrigerators using chloro fluoro carbon (CFC). In 1998, the government

banned the use of materials that could destroy the ozone layer, in

refrigerators and AC. The decision was in line with the Vienna

Convention banning the use of material such as CFC-12 that could destroy

ozone. CFC is found in material still used in the country like R 11 and

R 12 known as freon.

The industry and trade ministry issued a regulation:

— Banning the production and sales of products containing ODS

— Regulating procurement of ODS for use in refrigerator industry

under after sales service

— Determining the type of product that could use ODS and the type

of ODS basic materials.

Hydro carbon is potential to be used as substitute refrigerant. In

Europe HC has been used as refrigerant. The type of HC used in Europe is

Iso-Butane, which is used with special compressor. Meanwhile, Blend has

been sold widely in the market as replacement for R-12.

Marketing Systems

Foreign companies notably Japanese companies generally separate

producing companies from distributors or sole distributors. Sole

distributors generally have branches in various large cities. PT Sharp

Yasonta Internusa, for example, is the sole distributor for PT Sharp

Yasonta Indonesia. PT Sanjaya Sakti and PT Prima Setrindo are the

distributors for PT Sanyo Industries Indonesia.

The sole agents for National, Sanyo and Sharp have wide

distribution networks covering all large cities in the country. The

outlets for electric equipment in the past ten years expanded with the

opening of modern supermarkets including hypermarkets in the country

such as Makro, Carrefour, Goro, Alfa and special superstores for

electric equipment and household electronic goods like Agis, Electronic

City or Hartono Electronic in Surabaya.

Modern retail companies have expanded and they have strong

bargaining power facing suppliers. National and Sharp have special

marketing division to deal with hypermarkets as hypermarkets like Maro

and Carrefour will deal only with producers or sole agents. Currently

modern retail companies account for 10%-20% of the marketing of famous

brands of electronic products. National, which has a wide distribution

networks, therefore, retail companies have little role in its

marketing–not more than 10%.

Tight Competition

The competition among the brands is quite tight especially among

the old major brands that have gained popularity such as Sanyo,

National, Sharp and Toshiba from Japan, followed later by Goldstar and

Samsung from South Korea. The Korean products are no inferior in quality

but they are sold at lower price compared with Japanese brands.

The tightness of the competition could be seen from the intensity

of promotional drives through mass media advertisements. LG spent Rp 7.3

billion for advertisement in the first five months of 2002 to promote

the sales of its TV sets and Rp2.5 billion for other electronic products

including refrigerators, TV and cellular phone. LG also opens

Website–Toko–and other activities to help promote its products.

LG the type of Expresscool for freezer, portable refrigerator,

single door refrigerator, double door, three door, side by side type,

and door cooling type (the first technology in the world blowing cool

air not only from the back side but also from the door side through a

ventilation in the door side).

Price varying

The prices of refrigerator vary widely between one brand and the

other. The price of the Japanese products are generally higher only

because they have gained popularity and good reputation.

Luxury sales tax is a substantial element in the price of

refrigerators. Luxury sales tax is stil imposed on other electronic

products like TV sets, gas oven, hair dryers, water heater, camera and

washing machine. The rupiah fall especially in 1998 sent the price of

refrigerator skyrocketing as many of the components are still imported.

Market size recorded at 1,045,238 units

The market size of refrigerators has increased considerably despite

the lingering crisis. In the past five years, sales of refrigerators

grew by 17.9% annually peaking at 973,775 units in 2001 or far exceeding

the sales of 596,390 units in pre crisis year of 1997.

The market leaders for refrigerators are Sharp, LG, National and

Sanyo, followed by Mitsubishi, Hitachi and Toshiba. Toshiba is no longer

produced in the country. The product is supplied through import only. PT

Lippo Melco, which previously assembled Mitsubishi has also closed its

factory. Samsung is also supplied through import from South Korea, but

it is planned to be produced in the country in 2004. Local brands still

managing to survive the crisis are Maspion, Cosmos, Daichi and Polytron.

Other local brands such as Sapporo have disappeared from the market, but

a new brand, Sanken, has made an appearance, assembled in the country.

Sanken is a local brand but it uses imported components form China and

Japan. Sales of Sharp has increase din the past three years–from

240,000 units in 2000 to 300,000 units in 2001 and to an estimated

500,000 units in 2002.

Sales of National refrigerator were valued at Rp180.44 billion in

2000 making it the second largest contributor after audio to the total

sales value of National Gobel. Sales of National refrigerator were about

15% of the total sales of the electronic products of National Gobel in

value. Sales of its audio were valued at Rp413.64 billion or 34% of the

total sales of the products of National Gobel.

According to the Electronic Marketer Club (EMC) the market size of

refrigerators in the country rose 20% in 2000 from 1.25 million units in

2001. One door type of refrigerator contributes the largest share of 70%

to the total sales of refrigerators in the country. Two door type

contribute only 20% and freezer 10%.

With full line up products in various measures and models LG’s

Expresscool is set to grab a 24% share of the domestic market, which

according to EMC will reach 1.5 million units in 2002. LG Electronic

Indonesia is optimistic that it will has reach the highest sales target

in the country this year. LG exports part of its production of

refrigerators It said demand for the type of GR-212DV and GR-232DV has

continued to increase especially in Asia. According to LG, orders have

also come from Middle East and Africa. LG sets aside 2,500 units of

refrigerators for export and 5,000 units to be disposed of on the

domestic market every month.


The impact of the economic crisis that began to hit the country

late 1997, was bad on the country’s refrigerator industry but only

in 1998. That year, when the crisis was at its worst, demand was weak

resulting in a decline of 28% in production to 424,000 units from

590,000 units in the previous year. However, the industry recovered

quickly in 1999 when production shot up to 619,000 units. The surge

continued in the following two years to reach 953,270 units in 2001. The

positive side of the crisis is a leapfrog in exports–from 21,711 units

valued at US$ 13.02 million in 1997 to 93,711 units valued at US$ 20.56

million in 2001.

The progress made in the efforts toward political stability and

rupiah stability and the reduction of interest rate gave a boost to the

electronic industry including refrigerator industry. The condition is

expected to continue although tighter competition is almost certain to

follow the brisk market. Tight competition will benefit consumers and

give the business players a smaller margin as the competitors will be

under pressure to keep the prices as low as possible.

However, the domestic market is highly potential with the

population, the fourth largest in the world. The per capita consumption

of refrigerators in the country is still among the lowest in the world,

therefore, the market is still wide open. Meanwhile, the property sector

has shown signs of revival. The revival of the property sector would

contribute to increase in demand for refrigerators especially from

people of the middle to high income brackets that use the middle to high

class types of the property buildings especially in urban areas.

The market prospects, therefore, are still very encouraging for

refrigerator industry in the country. According to the Central Bureau of

Statistics (BPS) the country has 50.4 million households and 34.4

million or 75% of which have enjoyed electric light. The 34.4 million

households are all potential market.

Table – 1

Basic materiala used by PT National Gobel

Description Capacity Physical form

Plastic 12.6 ton/month Solid

Metal 42.8 ton/month Solid

Corrugated box 3,206 pcs/month Solid

Styrofoam 445 kg/month Solid

Palet Wood 3,206p pcs/month Solid

Cupper Tube 1,408 kg/month Solid

Compressor 3,686 pcs/month Solid

Evaporator 3,686 pcs/month Solid

Paint 1,193 liter/month Liquid

Paint tinner 596 liter/month liquid

HCL 41 liter/month liquid

NaOH 186 liter/month liquid

Accelerator 72 kg/month Powder

C5H10 (sikoplenten) 527 kg/month Gas

Icocyanate 5.964 kg/month Gas

Premix 5.249 kg/month liquid

R134a 337 kg/month Gas

Acet, Oxy, Arg, N 300 m3/month Gas

Paper 65 kg/month Solid

Source: Data Consult

Table – 2

Producers of refrigerators and capacity, 1999

Producers Location Prod. Brand

of plant capacity

PT Sharp Yasonta Indonesia Jakarta 480,000 Sharp

PT Sanyo Industries Jakarta 320,000 Sanyo


PT LG Electronic Indonesia Banten 300,000 LG

PT National Gobel Jakarta 272,000 National

PT Kotobuki Electronics West Java

PT Maspion Indonesia East Java 100,000 Maspion

PT Asalindo Chanyu Agung West Java 100,000 -

PT Natric Jaya Industri Jakarta 41,000 -

PT Dinamika Industrial Jakarta 15,000 -

PT Hartono Istana Electric Central Java 15,000 -

PT Harapan Daya Utama West Java 13,000 Daichi

Total 1,884,000

Source: Department of Industry and Trade/Data Consult

Table – 3

Indonesia’s production of refrigerators, 1997 – 2001

Year Production Growth

(units) (%)

1997 590,000 -

1998 424,600 -28.0

1999 619,000 45.8

2000 768,163 24.1

2001 953,270 24.1

Average growth 16.5

Source: Department of Industry and Trade/Data Consult

Table – 4

Imports of refrigerators by types,

1997 – 2001


Types 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

– Refrigerator-freezer 6,383 4,990 17,498 47,524 26,879

combination 1,216 576 2,527 6,685 3,854

– Household refrigerator 14,222 12,474 10,674 45,565 83,378

of compression type 3,778 1,734 973 5,074 11,710

– Household refrigerator 2,707 995 170 4,508 375

of absorption type 1,522 518 89 2,349 199

– Other types of 4,984 4,023 1,967 1,207 3,584

household refrigerator 1,167 1,482 725 1,045 1,344

Total 28,296 22,482 30,309 98,804 114,216

7,683 4,310 4,314 15,153 17,107

Source: CBS/Data Consult

Table – 5

Imports of refrigerators by countries of origin, 2001

Volume Value

Countries of origin (units) (US$’000)

Refrigerator-freezer Combination: 26,879 3,854

– Thailand 23,028 3,211

– Japan 1,869 267

– China 547 72

– South Korea 489 108

– Australia 276 109

– Others

Household efrigerator of Compression type: 83,378 11,710

– Thailand 62,180 8,922

– South Korea 9,308 1,810

– Japan 8,002 564

– Taiwan 1,270 173

– China 1,017 141

– Others

Household efrigerator of Absorption type: 375 199

– Germany 29 41

– Thailand 57 22

Others 289 136

Other types of household Refrigerators: 3,584 1,344

– China 603 135

– Thailand 669 395

– Others 2,312 814

Source: CBS/Data Consult

Table – 6

Taxes and import duty on refrigerators

Types Import duty VAT VAT

(%) (%) (%)

Refrigerator-freezer Combination: 15 10 10-20

Household efrigerator of Compression type: 15 10 10-20

Household efrigerator of Absorption type: 15 10 10-20

Other types of household Refrigerators: 15 10 10-20

Source: Department of Finance/Directorate General

Bea Import duty/Data Consult

Table – 7

Exports of refrigerators, 1997 – 2001

Year Volume (units) Value (US$’000)

1997 21,906 13,019

1998 47,279 11,394

1999 66,474 16,657

2000 78,251 18,796

2001 93,711 20,555

Source: CBS/Data Consult

Table – 8

Exports of refrigerators by countries of destination 2001

Country of origin Volume Value

(Units) (US$’000)

Refrigerator-freezer 5,952 1,252


– India 4,442 895

– Japan 485 150

Others 1,025

Household efrigerator of

Compression type: 83,071 18,439

– Japan 32,092 8,506

– Singapore 10,335 2,280

– Philippine 9,307 2,280

– Malaysia 8,732 1,597

– Ceylon (Srilanka) 5,688 1,067

– Others 16,917 2,709

Household efrigerator of 561 213

Absorption type:

– Vietnam 137 35

– Philippine 118 50

Others 306 128

Other types of household 4,130 652


– Singapore 919 268

– Nigeria 397 28

– Taiwan 356 107

– Others 2,461 249

Total 93,711 20,555

Source: CBS/Data Consult

Table – 9

Prices of products of refrigerator in retailer level, 2002

Brand Code Type Price (Rp/Unit)

14 May – August 2002

LG GR 231 GVK 1 door 1,670,000

GR 191 TVG 1 door 1,509,000

LR 191 GVK 1 door 1,600,000

GR 212 DV 2 doors 2,224,500

National NRA 15 KD 1 door 1,525,000

NRA K5 ED 1 door 1,086,000

NRA K16 JD 1 door 1,553,000

NRB 18 KF 2 doors 2,492,000

Sanken SN 120 1 door 1,084,000

Sharp VR 199 1 door 1,699,000

SJ D 216 2 doors 2,742,000

SJ 58 L 2 doors 5,335,000

SJ 63 L 2 doors 5,720,000

Sanyo SR F 17 H 1 door 1,772,000

Source: Data Consult

Table – 10

Market size of refrigerators in Indonesia, 1997 – 2001


Year Production Imports Export Market size Growth

(units) (units) (units) (units) (units)

1997 590,000 28,296 21,906 596,390 -

1998 424,000 22,482 47,279 399,203 -33.1

1999 619,000 30,309 66,474 582,835 46.0

2000 768,163 98,804 78,261 788,706 35.3

2001 953,270 114,216 93,711 973,775 23.5


growth 17.9

Source: Department of Industry and Trade/Data Consult….-a094639598

appliance repair, appliances

The Easiest Way To Shuck Corn: In The Microwave

Corn is one of the best things about summer — eating perfectly sweet ears right off the cob is a summer rite. But cleaning corn is another story. There’s the papery husk to deal with and all those thin, stringy silks that seem to go everywhere and stick to everything. Maybe you’ve used a brush to try to get them off the cob or some other method, but there are always stragglers. What if there were a method that left you with perfectly shucked corn with absolutely no silks? Well, there is.

The brilliant test kitchen editors at America’s Test Kitchen have come up with a way that uses the microwave to partially steam the cobs so you can just slip them out of the husks, silks and all. Watch the video above to see the ingenious trick.

appliance repair, appliances

Orlando massacre: Who the hell cares if Omar Mateen was gay?

Those in America who will do anything to deny the fact that we are at war with radical Islam have begun the public relations work of implying that the carnage wrought by Omar Mateen in Orlando might not have been driven by his political and religious ideology at all, but, instead, by his suppressed homosexuality. 

According to this theory, Mateen wasn’t really out to kill 49 Americans because he loathed this country and everything it stands for; he was out to kill 49 projections of his inner, gay self.  Had he only come out as a gay man, he would have been a loving person, not a mass murderer.

Translation:  Forget about Mateen’s trips to Saudi Arabia and his sworn allegiance to Isis.  Focus, instead, on the fact that Mateen may have used the dating app Grinder to flirt or hook up with gay men.

Well, that should be about as interesting right now to the bereaved families in blood-stained Orlando as the theory that Hitler’s frustrations over not becoming a successful artist were to the millions of Jews whose relatives died in ovens at Auschwitz and the 407,000 American military who perished to defeat that madman. 

Once the shooting or gassing starts, it doesn’t matter whether the guy with the gun or the ovens has a mother who screwed him up. That’s for armchair psychologists to debate after the war is over.

Once the shooting or gassing starts, it doesn’t matter whether the guy with the gun or the ovens has a mother who screwed him up.  That’s for armchair psychologists to debate after the war is over.

Yes, psychiatry can illuminate the unconscious motivations of everything from serial killers to fascist dictators.  It constitutes the most remarkable set of tools ever known to peer into the abyss.  But understanding the root causes of Mateen’s bloodlust, or those of Hitler’s or Usama bin Laden’s, should never be used as a way of talking ourselves out of the existential threat such individuals represent to us once their psychologies manifest themselves in cancerous ideologies.

Once you have lung cancer, the reasons you smoked are interesting, but not relevant to the moment at hand. 

All mass killers and all tyrants who hate life and liberty are psychiatrically ill.  Man’s  normal psychology is as an autonomous, freedom-loving being.  Everything I have learned from interviewing thugs and killers tells me unequivocally that totalitarians and extremists of every stripe are pathological. But fighting a psychologically diseased enemy doesn’t mean that enemy is less organized, less likely to spread or less lethal.

The world has cancer now. It is called radical Islam. And there is a time for psychoanalysis and a time for surgery.  Positing psychological reasons why ISIS and Al Qaeda (and their like) exist, and why many millions around the world, including many inside this country, are willing to die for the twisted views they represent, will not change the fact that we will have to defeat them with resolve of steel and weaponry of steel.  

Once that’s over, with our scalpel well-used, we will have the luxury to get into the “whys” of their individual or collective motivations.

Dr. Keith Ablow is a psychiatrist and member of the Fox News Medical A-Team.

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Product Reviews :: Best Washing Machines

Is there anything really that can be qualified as the best washing machine? Well, no and yes. While there could not be a single machine that can be elected as the best model of washing machines in itself, there could definitely be something called as a ‘best washing machine for you’. That is, depending on your personal needs you can easily choose a machine that suits you the best. Here is a little bit of research on these smart helpers of our house.

There are a number of brands offering washing machines for the Indian market today. However the most popular ones are LG, IFB, Samsung, Videocon, Whirlpool, Onida and Electrolux. All these brands provide machines with competitive features and price. There are basically two types of washing machines available- one with fully automatic operations and one with semi automatic ones.

A semi automatic machine is always a top loading machine while a fully automatic one can be either top loading or front loading. You can keep adding more clothes in a top loading machine even midway through the wash cycle. It is also less expensive and does not require a permanent water connection with it. It does however, require larger amount of water usage.

A front loading machine on the other hand is more expensive, uses less water but needs a permanent source of water with it. They are also heavier in weight and can not be moved about easily. You cannot add clothes midway through the cycle but give a better wash through tumble wash action. It is also gentler on clothes and consumes less energy.

A semi automatic machine needs constant commanding from you and you have to keep setting it for the net set of functions. In a double compartment semi automatic machine you will also have to get into the messy job of changing compartments for different types of cleaning of clothes.

A fully automatic machine on the other hand gives you the convenience of non messy washing by instructing the machine only once.

Both the types of Washing Machines are meant for specific sets of users. While the top loading machines are good for people who live in areas experiencing power cuts, and have a good amount of water at their disposal, the front loading machines are good for people with a constant source of water, constant energy and a large pocket too! It is also good to understand that while a front loading machine can be easily parked under any surface which has a tap around for connection, a top loading machine needs a separate dedicated space for itself.

While you can always go and check the different types of models available in your nearest market, it is also a good idea to look for them online. A lot of comparison and shopping portals these days give detailed information on the functions and features of the machines and also sell them at much cheaper rates. You can do a systematic analysis of everything that is available and then choose your best bet. E-shopping portals also give amazing deals and discounts and you experience the convenience of home delivery too! Getting somebody to wash your clothes was no ever so easy-huh?!!